Infertility: Types, Causes and Treatment

How it happens?

                                                Unable to conceive after having regular unprotected sex is called infertility. Main reasons are if one partner is unable to contribute in conception or woman in unable to carry pregnancy.

Types of infertility:

                                                Infertility is categorized in two forms:

  1. Primary

When a couple is unable to conceive after trying for at least 12 months with using any contraception is called primary infertility

  • Secondary 

When a couple has conceived previously but is unable to conceive further is called secondary infertility.


                        Causes of infertility in men and women are different.

Causes in men:

                                    During an orgasm men’s penis releases a milky fluid called semen. It is a combination of fluid and sperm. Sperm is made in testicles. After the ejaculation sperm is transported towards egg with the help of seminal fluid.

Following are the issues a person can face in infertility:

  1. There are not enough sperms in ejaculation. Sperms that are considered low are counted under 15 million.
  2. The motion or mobility of sperms are low as they are unable to reach the egg.
  3. If sperm has unusual shape as it will make it difficult to move to the egg and fertilizing it.

Not only sperms but semen can also be abnormal which can result from any medical issue such as infection cancer or surgery or may be it is an ejaculation disorder. Overheated testicles and harmonic imbalance are also causes of unusual semen.

There are list of other factors that causes infertility in men as:

  • Genetic factor
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Some disease
  • Radiation therapy
  • Excessive alcohol use
  • Over age

Causes in women:

                                    Ovulation disorder is the main cause of infertility in women. There are many causes of this disorder such as:

  • Ovaries fail to work before time that is before age of 40.
  • PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) in this situation your ovaries don’t work properly or may be ovulation not occur.
  • If a women is not pregnant and not breastfeeding and prolactin level is high it can affect ovulation that is called hyperprolactinemia.
  • Pregnancy is difficult to sustain if your egg has a poor quality or not developing properly.
  • Thyroid problem that lead to hormonal imbalance is another factor of infertility.
  • There are also chances of problem in uterus as it can stop egg from travelling from ovary to uterus.

There are other risk factors that can increase the infertility as over age, smoking, drinking alcohol, use of some medicines or drugs, overweight, eating disorder, mental stress etc.

Infertility test/diagnosis:

                        You need to see a doctor if you haven’t conceived after trying for 12 months. Your doctor will ask about your sexual habits. It is better to visit doctor together.

Test for men:

                        Your doctor can ask about your habits, medical history, if you are taking any medicines and also took physical test.

Ultrasound, Semen analysis, blood test, chlamydia will be performed and also size and structure of penis will be checked.

Test for women:

                        A general examination is performed and Doctor will ask you about medical history, medication, menstrual cycle and sexual habits.

After that there are number of tests that would be performed including blood test hysterosalpingography, Laparoscopy, pelvic ultrasound, genetic testing, chlamydia test.


                Treatment for men and women are different depending on age factor. At start couple will be advised to have intercourse during ovulation period. An egg can survive 5 days and can be fertilize in 1 day after ovulation. Conception can be occur in these 6 days.

Treatment for men:

  • If a person is facing premature ejaculation then medication or behavioral approaches can help.
  • Another treatment is varicocele in which varicose vein in scrotum is removed through surgery.
  •  Sperms are ejaculated directly from testicles and combined with an egg in laboratory.
  • Sperms are taken directly from bladder and injected into an egg.
  • A surgery in performed for an epididymis blockage. Epididymis is a coil like structure where sperms are stored and transferred

Treatment for women:

                        Medication helps to regulate ovulation period. Which includes:

  • If woman is having PCOS or other disorder causing irregular ovulation period then clomiphene helps to improve and regulate the ovulation.
  • Metformin is prescribed if clomiphene is not effective for women with PCOS.
  • Pituitary gland produce Follicle-stimulating hormone that controls the estrogen production. This hormone helps ovary to stimulate mature egg follicle.
  • Bromocriptine is a drug which helps in restraining prolactine production. Prolactine are hormones that stimulates milk during breastfeeding. Women with high level of prolactine hormone can have irregular ovulation.


                If you are not conceiving after many months or years it can lead to mental stress or even depression. There are also some physical complications that can occur.

Other complications include ovarian stimulation syndrome, ectopic pregnancy and coping mentally.

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