Cancer: Types, Symptoms and Treatment

What is cancer?

Uncontrollably growing cells in our body that are abnormal and dangerous for our system are called cancer. There are various types of it like Breast cancer, Colon cancer, skin cancer, lymphoma etc. Symptoms of each cancer depends on its type.

Chemotherapy, surgery or radiations are treatments for the cancer.

Types of Cancer:

There are two types of cancer.

  1. Curable

In some tumors/cancers cells grow slowly that is why they are no harm to us and can be cured easily. If cancer is diagnosed in early stage it would not be difficult to recover completely.

  • Incurable

Even there are treatments and cure for cancer but still it’s a No 2 cause of death in U.S.  Bladder cancer Brain cancer and cervical cancer are some of the types that are hard to cure.

Common Types:

There are some types of cancer that are more common these days such as:

Breast cancer

Lung cancer

Skin cancer

Prostate cancer


There are some symptoms and signs that appear early in cancer.

  1. Fatigue:

Fatigue in cancer is not a normal type of tiredness it’s a huge exhaustion and it will not go away. If you don’t feel relaxed even after having good sleep and changing your routine than you need to see your doctor.

  • Blood in urine:

Another symptom is showing up urine when you pee. It is more common in bladder or kidney cancer. Kidney stone, kidney disease and infection in urinary system can also cause it. It will be confirmed after testing and diagnosing it.

  • Diet loss:

Diet loss or less appetite is a common symptom in any disease like from depression to the flu. Cancer can change your metabolism that is a way of changing your food into energy.

  • Blood in stool:

You can see blood in your stool while having cancer. Also some other diseases cause bleeding such as Ulcer, hemorrhoids, infection etc. When there is blood in your poop it can be from your GI track (esophagus, stomach, intestine).

By its color you can tell that where it is coming from.

  • Extreme cough:

A simple cough can be due to flu but an extreme cough along with chest pain, shortness of breath, weight loss, hoarseness and fatigue can be a symptom of lung cancer.


There are many causes of cancer some are preventable others are not. In preventable cancer include:

  • Smoking
  • Large alcohol consumption
  • Poor nutrition
  • Excessive body weight

In unpreventable cancers main factor is age.


If cancer is diagnosed early it can be treated easily and there are chances to cur it properly. Some types of cancers can be diagnosed by routine checkup such as mouth, skin, breast, prostate and testicle.

Mostly cancer is diagnosed when a tumor show up or other symptoms appear while in some cases it is diagnosed accidentally while examining or testing other medical issues.

A physical test is performed for confirmation of cancer. Urine stool and blood test also indicate the specification of cancers. CT scan, MRI (Magnetic resonance imagining), Ultrasound and endoscopy also help doctors to determine the size and location of the cancer.

Biopsy is also performed to confirm a cancer that is a process of removing tissue with a tumor and check for a cancer cell by studying it under microscope.


After diagnosing cancer, there are various ways to cure cancer such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and other. You and your doctor will decide that which the best treatment for your cancer is. The main goal is to remove tumor, cancerous cells or tissues from your body.

  1. Chemotherapy:

Chemotherapy includes medication/drugs to kill cancer tissues/cells.

There are two types of chemotherapy:

One is traditional in which you get medication through injection in your vein or muscles. Side effects are different for every person which includes

  • Diarrhea
  • Pain
  • Fatigue
  • Hair loss
  • Vomiting
  • Mouth sores

Other type is oral chemotherapy that is swallowing drugs or medicines at home. Oral chemotherapy is more costly than traditional one but you have to take it if your doctor has recommended it.

  • Surgery:

In most cases surgery is the best way to cure cancer if it hasn’t spread in other parts of the body.

Along with traditional surgery (operations) there are some other modern techniques to do it such as:

  • Laser surgery(beam of light)
  • Electrosurgery (using electric current)
  • Cryosurgery (freezing cancer cells)
  • Radiations:

High energy waves and particles are used to destroy cancer cells in your body. Radiations are not painful but after effects can be such as pain, fatigue, rashes on skin depending on the place where you have cancer.

Patient care:

If you are handling a cancer patient you need to take good care of his mental situation along with his physical care as he feels so lonely. Ask them to join a support group as it will help them to feel better. They can talk to people with similar situation and realize themselves as a part of society and community.

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