Diabetes and pregnancy

Diabetes can cause problems during pregnancy for women and their developing babies. Poor control of diabetes during pregnancy increases the chances for birth defects and other problems for the pregnancy. It can also cause serious complications for the woman. Proper health care before and during pregnancy can help prevent birth defects and other health problems.


Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of your liver. Some people with hepatitis have no symptoms, whereas others develop yellow discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes, poor appetite, vomiting, tiredness, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Hepatitis is acute if it resolves within six months, and chronic if it lasts longer than six months. …

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Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure is a common long-term medical condition which typically does not cause symptoms. Its risk factors include obesity, drinking too much alcohol, smoking, and family history. Long-term hypertension can cause coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia. Lifestyle …

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Thyroid disorders

The thyroid gland is located on the front part of the neck below the thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple). The gland produces thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolic processes in the body. Thyroid disorders can range from a small, harmless goiter (enlarged gland) that needs no treatment to life-threatening cancer. The most common thyroid problems involve abnormal …

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Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin. Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than others.[6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about …

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Type 1 diabetes

Previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition and mostly occurs in children and young people. In this condition the pancreas produces very little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. In these patients if not diagnosed and managed early may lead to …

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Diabetes care and management

Diabetes is on the rise in worldwide and in Pakistan too. Specialist with expertise in diabetes care play an important role in its management. Life style management is a fundamental aspect of diabetes care and includes self management education, self monitoring, nutrition therapy, physical activity, smoking cessation counselling and medical treatment.