Miscarriage: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Miscarriage?

Losing a baby before 20th week of pregnancy is called a miscarriage. Spontaneous abortion is medical term used for miscarriages. But in the common meaning of term it is not an abortion.

Miscarriages are very common like 50% of pregnant women end in miscarriage. Mostly miscarriages occur before even a woman knows that she is pregnant.

About 70% to 80% of miscarriages occur in the first 3 months of pregnancy. If a miscarriage occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy then it is said to be a late miscarriage. However, late miscarriages are not very common.


Some common symptoms of a miscarriage include:

  • Belly pain
  • Contraction
  • Weakness
  • Bleeding
  • White-pink mucus
  • Severe cramps
  • Weight loss
  • Severe back pain
  • Tissues from vagina that looks like clots
  • Fever
  • Fewer signs of pregnancy

If you notice any of these symptoms, call your doctor immediately. Your doctor will tell you whether to visit him in office or go to emergency.

Causes and risk factors:

Most miscarriages happen due to fatal genetic problems in unborn baby. These problems are not usually connected to the mother.

Risk factors that can increase the chances of miscarriage are:

  • Hormone problems
  • Infections
  • Immune system responses
  • Some medical issues in the mother such as diabetes and thyroid problems.
  • The physical problem in mother
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol use
  • Using  drugs
  • Uterine abnormalities
  • Exposure to radiations

A woman will be at high risk of a miscarriage if:

  • Her age is above 35
  • Has a diabetic problem or thyroid issues
  • Already had miscarriages

Cervical insufficiency:

Another common cause of miscarriage is when a woman’s cervix is weak and can’t hold a pregnancy. Doctors can it cervical insufficiency. This type of miscarriage occurs in the second trimester. Few symptoms of miscarriages due to cervical insufficiency include feeling sudden pressure, tissues from placenta or baby’s body could come out of your body without any pain and your water could break.

Types of miscarriage:

There are different kinds of miscarriage:

Threatened miscarriage:

You get a threat when you start bleeding but your cervix does not dilate in this condition so you can continue your pregnancy without any issue.

Inevitable miscarriage:

You start bleeding and having cramps also your cervix has expanded. A miscarriage is confirmed.

Incomplete miscarriage:

Some tissues from your placenta and baby’s body come out of your body but some are still inside Your uterus.

Complete miscarriage:

Complete miscarriage occurs before the 12th week of pregnancy in which all the tissues come out of your uterus.

Recurrent miscarriage:

You had three to four miscarriages in a row and all we’re in 1st  week of pregnancy. This type is very rare and affects only 1% of couples.

Missed miscarriage:

The embryo didn’t form or died in uterus while your tissues stay inside.


Your miscarriage is diagnosed by doctor after no of tests including:

  • Your doctor will check if your cervix is enlarged. It is called a pelvic exam.
  • He will take an ultrasound exam to check the baby’s heartbeat. If that is not clear, you will go for another test after a week.
  • A blood test would be taken to check for pregnancy hormones in the blood and compare it with your previous level. If you have been bleeding than your doctor might take the anemia test as well.
  • If tissues of the baby’s body or placenta have left your body then your doctor will take tissue tests as well.
  • If you had miscarriages before then the doctor will take a chromosome test to check if you or your partner’s genes are causing the problem.


Having a miscarriage doesn’t mean that you have infertility issues. About 85% of women who experience miscarriage, have normal deliveries and births. Only 1-2% of women have continuous miscarriages. Researchers believe that this is caused by an autoimmune reaction.

If your miscarriage is complete and your uterus is empty, you won’t need any further treatment.

If it is incomplete miscarriage and all tissue doesn’t come out then your doctor will perform dilation and curettage process. They will remove remaining tissues from your body after dilating your cervix. If you do not want surgery, then medications are given that will cause left over tissues to leave your body.

If you are bleeding then after bleeding stops you can go back to your normal routine. Your cervix dilate on it’s own but you are still pregnant. Your doctor will perform cerclage to close your cervix


If you have any medical issue that is causing miscarriage then you need a treatment first. Improving your condition will make it possible to have a successful pregnancy.

You need to follow these steps to prevent miscarriage:

  • Eat healthy food
  • Avoid infections
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Regular exercise
  • Cut back to caffeine, smoking and alcohol.

When to conceive after miscarriage:

When to conceive after miscarriage:

You need to discuss with your doctor that when can you conceive after a miscarriage. Some experts believe that you should wait for a certain time period that is a menstrual cycle to 3 months. Also, talk to your doctor to avoid further miscarriages.

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